by Miller & Levine

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Chapter 32

In this chapter, students will read about the adaptations and evolution of mammals and the major living groups of mammals. They will also read in more detail about the evolution and characteristics of the primates, with an emphasis on the evolution of humans. The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

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Web Codes for Chapter 32:
SciLinks: Mammals
SciLinks: Human Evolution

Section 32-1: Introduction to the Mammals
In addition to having hair and the ability to nourish their young with milk, all mammals breathe air and are endotherms that generate their body heat internally.
The first true mammals appeared during the late Triassic Period, about 220 million years ago.
The ability of mammals to regulate their body heat from within is an example of homeostasis.
As mammals evolved to eat foods other than insects, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to their diets.
The kidneys of mammals help maintain homeostasis by excreting or retaining excess liquid.

Section 32-2: Diversity of Mammals
The three groups of living mammals are the monotremes, the marsupials, and the placentals. Marsupials bear live young that complete their development in a pouch. Monotremes lay eggs. In placental mammals, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother through the placenta.
Similar ecological opportunities on the different continents have produced some striking examples of convergent evolution in mammals.

Section 32-3: Primates and Human Origins
In general, primates have binocular vision, a well-developed cerebrum, fingers and toes, and arms that rotate in their joints.
Primates that evolved from two of the earliest ancestral branches look very little like typical monkeys and are called prosimians. Members of the more familiar primate group that includes monkeys, apes, and humans are called anthropoids.
Today, most paleontologists agree that the hominid fossil record includes at least five genera—Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, and Homo—and as many as 16 separate hominid species. This diverse group of fossils covers roughly 4.5 million years.






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