by Miller & Levine

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Chapter 39

In this chapter, students will read about the structure and function of the endocrine and reproductive systems of the human body. They will also read about fertilization and how a human fetus develops. The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

Hot Links Take it to the Net
Chapter Self-Test Teaching Links

What are Web Codes?

Web Codes for Chapter 39:
Scilinks: Endocrine System
Scilinks: Glands
SciLinks: Gametes
SciLinks: Human Growth and Development

Section 39-1: The Endocrine System
The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream.
These products broadcast messages throughout the body.
Like most systems of the body, the endocrine system is regulated by feedback mechanisms that function to maintain homeostasis.

Section 39-2: Human Endocrine Glands
The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and control the actions of several other endocrine glands.
The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the pituitary gland.
The thyroid gland has the major role in regulating the body's metabolism.
Hormones from the thyroid gland and the parathyroid glands maintain homeostasis in blood calcium levels.
The adrenal glands help the body prepare for and deal with stress.
Insulin and glucagon released from the pancreas help to keep the level of glucose in the blood stable.
The gonads serve two important functions: the production of gametes and the secretion of sex hormones.

Section 39-3: The Reproductive System
The main structures of the male reproductive system are the testes, the epididymis, the vas deferens, the urethra, and the penis. These structures work together to produce and deliver sperm.
The main structures of the female reproductive system are the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina. In addition to producing eggs, the female reproductive system prepares the female's body to nourish a developing embryo.
The menstrual cycle has four phases: follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstruation.

Section 39-4: Fertilization and Development
The process of a sperm joining with an egg is called fertilization.
The placenta is the embryo's organ of respiration.

Additional Resources:

Click for a Quicktime animation of human embryonic development (from the University of Pennsylvania)

E. E. Just was one of the great pioneers of developmental biology. Click on the stamp honoring him for more information about his scientific career

Centers for Disease Control
The CDC's web page on STDs (sexually-transmitted diseases) and their prevention.

Slides of Human Development
(An excellent teaching resource - from the University of Virginia)

The Endocrine System
An overview of the system - from a course at Clermont College.

Pituitary Hormones
Detailed information on the biochemistry and function of pituitary hormones. From an on-line biology textbook.

The Thyroid Society
An organization providing information on thyroid function and diseases of the thyroid.

Steroid Hormones
Detailed biochemistry and functional information (from Indiana State University)

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