by Miller & Levine

[complete Table of Contents]

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ATP Synthase (Image from the Nobel Prize Foundation)

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Animated versions of the Krebs Cycle:
Univ of Virginia
Smith College
Kent State

ATP Synthesis (UConn)

Chapter 9
Cellular Respiration

In this chapter, students will read about the process of cellular respiration. They will read about the major steps in this process and how it differs from the anaerobic processes of alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation. The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

Hot Links Take it to the Net
Chapter Self-Test Teaching Links

What are Web Codes?
Web Codes for Chapter 9:
Active Art: Cellular Respiration
Miller & Levine: Issue: Should Creatine Supplements be Banned?
Data Sharing: Making Kimchi
SciLinks: Cellular Respiration
SciLinks: Krebs Cycle

Section 9-1: Chemical Pathways
Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound.
Glycolysis captures two pairs of high-energy electrons with the carrier NAD+.
Because glycolysis does not require oxygen, it supplies chemical energy to cells when oxygen is not available.
The two main types of fermentation are alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
In the absence of oxygen, yeast and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.
Animals cannot perform alcoholic fermentation, but some cells, such as human muscle cells, can convert glucose into lactic acid. This is called lactic acid fermentation.

Section 9-2: The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
The products of photosynthesis are similar to the reactants of cellular respiration. The products of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis.



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