by Miller & Levine
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chapter, students will read about the structure, reproduction, and ecology
of the members of the kingdom Fungi. They will also read about the characteristics
that distinguish each of the four phyla of fungi. The links below lead
to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot
Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It
to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can
use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors
may find useful for their students.
Section 21-1: The Kingdom Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic
heterotrophs that have cell walls made of chitin.
The bodies of multicellular fungi are
composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium.
Most fungi reproduce both asexually and
Section 21-2: Classification of Fungi
Zygomycetes have life cycles that include
The phylum Ascomycota is named for the
ascus, a reproductive structure that contains spores.
The phylum Basidiomycota, or club fungi,
gets its name from the basidium, a specialized reproductive structure
that resembles a club.
Deuteromycota is an extremely varied
phylum. It is composed of those fungi that are not placed in other phyla
because researchers have never been able to observe a sexual phase in
their life cycles.
Section 21-3: Ecology of Fungi
Fungi are found in every ecosystem, where
they recycle nutrients by breaking down the bodies of other organisms.
Parasitic fungi cause serious plant and
animal diseases. A few fungi cause diseases in humans.
Some fungi form symbiotic relationships
in which both partners benefit. Two such mutualistic associations, lichens
and mycorrhizae, are essential to many ecosystems.