by Miller & Levine

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Are lichens decomposers?
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Chapter 21
The Fungi

In this chapter, students will read about the structure, reproduction, and ecology of the members of the kingdom Fungi. They will also read about the characteristics that distinguish each of the four phyla of fungi. The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

Hot Links

Chapter Self-Test

Take it to the Net Teaching Links

What are Web Codes?

Web Codes for Chapter 21:
Science News: Protists and Fungi
SciLinks: Fungi
SciLinks: Asexual Reproduction

Section 21-1: The Kingdom Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls made of chitin.
The bodies of multicellular fungi are composed of many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass called a mycelium.
Most fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.

Section 21-2: Classification of Fungi
Zygomycetes have life cycles that include a zygospore.
The phylum Ascomycota is named for the ascus, a reproductive structure that contains spores.
The phylum Basidiomycota, or club fungi, gets its name from the basidium, a specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club.
Deuteromycota is an extremely varied phylum. It is composed of those fungi that are not placed in other phyla because researchers have never been able to observe a sexual phase in their life cycles.

Section 21-3: Ecology of Fungi
Fungi are found in every ecosystem, where they recycle nutrients by breaking down the bodies of other organisms.
Parasitic fungi cause serious plant and animal diseases. A few fungi cause diseases in humans.
Some fungi form symbiotic relationships in which both partners benefit. Two such mutualistic associations, lichens and mycorrhizae, are essential to many ecosystems.


More about lichens at

Lichen Research at Oregon State

Lichen Ecology (at the University of California)

Click Here for Science News articles on Fungi and Protists

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