by Miller & Levine

[complete Table of Contents]

Use the pull-down menu to jump to any of the Book's 40 Chapters:

Additional Resources:

A Unique Resource: The USDA Plants Database.
Type in the common name of any plant, and this site will give you photos, scientific names, and detailed information.

The American Fern Society
(Yes, there is one, and it has a great web site!)

The Plants of Texas
(A complete list of the vascular plants of Texas)

Monocots vs. Dicots
What's the difference? It might not be as clearcut as you thought!

Chapter 22
Plant Diversity

In this chapter, students will read about the origin of plants and the major characteristics that distinguish plants from other organisms. They will also read about the differences among bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms in reproduction and internal transport systems. The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

Hot Links

Chapter Self-Test

Take it to the Net Teaching Links

What are Web Codes?

Web Codes for Chapter 22:
Activity: Bryophyte Life Cycle
SciLinks: Classifying Plants
SciLinks: Seedless Vascular Plants
SciLinks: Seed Plants

Section 22-1: Introduction to Plants
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. They develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b.
The lives of plants revolve around the need for sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, and the movement of water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
The first plants evolved from an organism much like the multicellular green algae living today.

Section 22-2: Bryophytes
Bryophytes have life cycles that depend on water for reproduction. Lacking vascular tissue, these plants can draw up water by osmosis only a few centimeters above the ground.
Bryophytes include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
In bryophytes, the gametophyte is the dominant, recognizable stage of the life cycle and is the stage that carries out most of the plant's photosynthesis.

Section 22-3: Seedless Vascular Plants
Both forms of vascular tissue—xylem and phloem—can move fluids throughout the plant body, even against the force of gravity.
Seedless vascular plants include club mosses, horsetails, and ferns.
Ferns and other vascular plants have a life cycle in which the diploid sporophyte is the dominant stage.

Section 22-4: Seed Plants
Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce in areas without water include flowers or cones, the transfer of sperm by pollination, and the protection of embryos in seeds.
Gymnosperms include gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers.

Section 22-5: Angiosperms—Flowering Plants
Angiosperms have unique reproductive organs known as flowers. Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds.
Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the plant embryo. Monocots have one seed leaf, and dicots have two.
There are three categories of plant life spans: annual, biennial, and perennial.




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