by Miller & Levine

[complete Table of Contents]

Use the pull-down menu to jump to any of the Book's 40 Chapters:

Additional Resources:

Is there Life in a Desert of Ice?
Check out this page on life at the North Pole

Cycles of Change in the Forest
This web page at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry shows ecological succession in the forests of the American Northwest

Chapter 4
Ecosystems and Communities

In this chapter, students will read ..... The links below lead to additional resources to help you with this chapter. These include Hot Links to Web sites related to the topics in this chapter, the Take It to the Net activities referred to in your textbook, a Self-Test you can use to test your knowledge of this chapter, and Teaching Links that instructors may find useful for their students.

Hot Links Take it to the Net
Chapter Self-Test Teaching Links

What are Web Codes?
Web Codes for Chapter 4:
Active Art: Earth's Biomes
SciLinks: Climate and the Greenhouse Effect
SciLinks: Biomes
SciLinks: Aquatic Ecosystems

Section 4-1: The Role of Climate
Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth's temperature range.
As a result of differences in latitude and thus the angle of heating, Earth has three main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical.

Section 4-2: What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which the organism lives.
Community interactions, such as competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis, can powerfully affect an ecosystem.
Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances. As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community.

Section 4-3: Land Biomes
The world's major land biomes include tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savanna, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest, and tundra. Each of these biomes is defined by a unique set of abiotic factors—particularly climate—and has a characteristic ecological community.

Section 4-4: Aquatic Ecosystems
Aquatic ecosystems are determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of the overlying water.
Freshwater ecosystems can be divided into two main types: flowing-water ecosystems and standing-water ecosystems.
In addition to the division between the photic and aphotic zones, marine biologists also divide the ocean into zones based on the depth and distance from shore: the intertidal zone, coastal ocean, and the open ocean.





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